Making Water everybody’s Concern

Few words of a wise old-man spoken to Rajendra Singh changed the path of Tarun Bharat Sangh’s approach towards development. After that TBS never look back. It is passion and dedication of its leaders which made TBS a champion in the sphere of Rain-Water Harvesting. Till today, TBS constructed around 10,000 of rainwater harvesting with the contribution of villagers and donors.

Concluding remarks of a report “Rain Water Harvesting Structures (RWHS) In The Alwar District, Rajasthan By Tarun Bharat Sangh And Its Impact On Greening” in 2015 by Scientists From National Remote Sensing Centre (Isro), Balanagar, Hyderabad:  it has been observed that major changes occurred in the agriculture lands; there were only one crop or treated as fallow land in time 1 has been converted as multi crop land in time 2 with good productivity. The availability of irrigated land for a prolonged period is the resultant of the ground water recharge due to RWHS. Impact has been observed on the other land use classes also as there were no grasses and dry trees (without leaves) in time 1, are with packed with grass covers and trees with full of leaves in time 2.

Expert opinion R.N.Athavale, emeritus scientist at the National Geophysical Research Institute in Hyderabad, assessed the work done by TBS. His aim was to gauge the changes brought about by the RWH structures through certain estimates of the water balance of a typical river in the area. Here are some of his findings:

  • The annual average rainfall in the region is about 600 mm. Most of this rain (about 80 per cent) falls during the monsoon.
  • Before TBS’s intervention in encouraging RWH, 35 per cent of the rainwater was lost immediately as seasonal run-off. Another 50 per cent was lost due to evaporation or transpiration.
  • Only 15 per cent of the rainfall naturally recharged the groundwater. Of this, 5 per cent became soil moisture, as the soil was too dry. Another 5 per cent constituted the base flow, implying the amount of groundwater returned to the surface stream or river. Of the remaining 5 per cent, some parts were tapped by wells and used, but the rest percolated to depths below the wells and stream beds.
  • After RWH structures were built, there was an additional recharge of groundwater to the tune of 20 per cent.
  • Though the base flow to the stream or river remained the same, there was an additional seepage (effluent seepage) of 17 per cent of rainfall to the river in non-monsoon months. This phenomenon contributed to the revival of the River Aravari and made it perennial.
  • Seasonal run-off has come down from 35 per cent of the rainwater to only 10 per cent.
  • There has been an increase in soil moisture: an additional 5 per cent of the rainwater is retained in the soil. Groundwater table has risen.
  • In all 5 per cent of the total rainwater is being used for irrigation, one-third of which is returned to the ground. It should be noted that the villagers have not been unscrupulous in drawing out groundwater.

About 22 per cent of the run-off (excluding the 10 per cent seasonal run-off during the monsoon) is better regulated and spread out over the year. This has been crucial in reviving the rivulets. If this run-off had not been regulated, the rivulets would not flow throughout the year. This shows how fragile the ecosystem is…